REAFFIRMING that the UK`s withdrawal from the EU should not infringe on the rights and obligations of the Republic of Cyprus under EU law or on the rights and obligations of the parties to the founding treaty, the Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the “Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. A challenge could result in financial sanctions against the UK, or even allow the EU to withdraw BENEFITS from the UK under the UK`s current agreements. More importantly, the threat of legal action could derail negotiations on a future UK-EU relationship agreement, while a key element of the EU`s approach is that any challenge to the law is separate from those negotiations, which it has pledged to pursue. These negotiations are continuing for the time being. If a panel decision by one party fails to comply, the agreement provides for certain “temporary remedies”: If an agreement on future relations between the EU and the UK were to be reached on that date, the EU could, if successful, be allowed to suspend elements of an agreement that would otherwise benefit the UK.B, such as lower tariffs on British products. After an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MEPs ruled that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it refused to give Parliament full legal advice on the consequences of its proposed withdrawal terms.  The focus of the consultation was on the legal effect of the “backstop” agreement for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the customs border between the EU and the United Kingdom and its consequences on the Good Friday agreement which ended the unrest in Northern Ireland, including whether the UK would be assured, in accordance with the proposals, of being able to leave the EU in a practical sense.
The exchange of letters of 30 March and 19 April 1977, amended by an exchange of letters on 8 November 1989 and 10 January 1990, relating to the arrangement for the abolition of the costs of eligible in-kind benefits as well as administrative and medical reviews of the international conventions to which the Union is a party and the international conventions concluded by the Member States on behalf of the Union; “custody rights”: custody of children within the meaning of Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No. 2201/2003 (6), including agreement obtained through termination, legal protection or valid agreement.